Research & Papers

Preparing Primigravid Women for Childbirth: Behavioral Responses to Labour Pain and Outcome of Labour

An evaluative study to determine the effectiveness of childbirth preparation class in terms of behavioural responses during first stage of labour and outcome of labour among primigravid women in selected hospitals of South India.


Karkada, Eva Chris. M Sc (N), Lecturer, Manipal College of Nursing, Center for Basic Sciences Complex, Bejai, Mangalore

Noronha, Judith Angelitta. M Sc (N), MPhil (N), Ph D. Associate Professor, Department of Maternal and Child Health Nursing, Sultan Qaboos College of Nursing, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

D’souza, Sonia R.B. M Sc (N), M A(Sociology) , Lecturer, Department of OBG Nursing, Manipal College of Nursing, Manipal University, Manipal


Objective: To determine the effectiveness of childbirth preparation class in terms of behavioural responses during first stage of labour and outcome of labour in terms of maternal and neonatal outcome, among primigravid women in selected hospitals of Udupi district, Karnataka. Methods: An evaluative approach using a quasi experimental non equivalent group post test only design was used. The test group consisted of 60 healthy primigravidas of whom 30 participated in the childbirth preparation class and another 30 made up the control group. The effectiveness was assessed by means of Student’s ‘t’ test and Chi-square test. Results: Statistically significant differences between the groups were found in behavioural responses in first stage of labour, nature of delivery and neonatal outcome. Statistically significant differences in duration of labour were not observed. Conclusion: Childbirth preparation class for pregnant women focuses on preventive and promotive care and creates a childbirth experience that is safer, positive and satisfying for the childbearing women.

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Nursing educators’ involvement in decision making and its relationship with job satisfaction

The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of educators in decision making, to identify the most dominant dimension of involvement in decision making, whether there is any significant difference of involvement in decision making, to identify the job satisfaction level of educators, and the relationship between involvement in decision making and job satisfaction.

Author: LIM SWEE GEOK, International Medical University, Malaysia

No. 126, Jalan 19/155b, Bukit Jalil, 57000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia



Samples consisted of 32 educators in two private nursing colleges. Instrument used to measure the six dimensions of involvement in decision making were adapted from Rinehart and Short (1992) while five dimensions of job satisfaction were measured using an instrument adapted from by Klecker & Loadman (1996), DeBruyne (2001), Teacher 2000 Survey (2000) and Norma (1998).

Findings of this study indicated the lack of involvement in decision making with self efficacy as the most dominant dimension. No significant differences were noted in the level of involvement. Dissatisfaction was noted in all five dimensions in both colleges. There is a strong correlation between the educators’ involvement in decision making and job satisfaction. This study implied that educators want to play a more active role in decision making. Therefore, a paradigm shift is necessary as success or failure of this initiative is very much dependent on the willingness of the administrators to support and pave the way for the educators.

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Creating a Caring Atmosphere in an Intensive Stroke Care Unit in Indonesia: An Action Research Approach

This paper describes one cycle of an action research study that was carried out in an intensive stroke care unit at a hospital in Medan, Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to create a caring atmosphere in the unit in order to improve the quality of nursing care. Fifteen participants were involved in this study. Individual in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, participant observation, field notes, and photo recordings were used to collect data and to inform the actions. Data were analyzed by content analysis with Weft QDA program for data management. The findings revealed that after one cycle of the Action Research study the caring atmosphere in the unit improved to certain/some degree. The nurses had become used to establishing caring relationships with patients and family members by greeting them and participating in social conversation (often communicating with them). The nurses also had started to change their behaviors by focusing their nursing more on their patients.

Authors: Setiawan, MNS is a PhD candidate, Faculty of Nursing, Prince of Songkla University (PSU), Thailand and a lecturer at the Faculty of Nursing, University of Sumatera Utara (USU), Indonesia.


Urai Hatthakit, PhD, RN is an assistant professor at Faculty of Nursing, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand. She teaches research at the masters and doctoral programs.

Nongnut Boonyoung, PhD, RN is an assistant professor at the Faculty of Nursing, Prince of Songkla University Faculty of Nursing, Thailand. She teaches nursing management at the masters and bachelor’s degree programs.


Joan C. Engebretson, DrPH, AHN-BC, RN is a professor at School of Nursing, University of Texas at Houston. She teaches advanced qualitative research at the doctoral degree level. Recent publications appeared in Journal Professional Nursing. (with J. Mahoney & E. Carlson, 2008).

Email: Joan C.


The intensive stroke care unit (ISCU) is a unit at Pirngadi General Hospital (PGH). PGH is one of the public teaching hospitals that provides acute and intensive care for stroke patients in Medan, Indonesia. Consisting of eight beds, this unit received 362 patients during the year 2006, an occupancy rate of 90.3%. The patient care approach instituted at the time of this study was very task oriented, and was based on a medical model. This was the approach that best described the ethos of care used by nurses in daily practice. General procedures and manuals of care developed by administrative nurses were used as instructive guides that direct the practice of nursing.

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Nursing Student Experience

student nurseThe purpose of the study was to describe and explicate the experience of being a nursing student. A convenience sample of 10 students, were interviewed personally by the researcher using an interview guide. Specific open-ended questions were asked as to explore the student’s experiences. Their stories provided an insight into the satisfaction, hope, challenges, and stresses faced by students. Several major theme clusters emerged from the data; i) feeling overworked; ii) feeling unprepared; iii) seeking support from one’s faculty and one’s family; iv) meeting with conflicts and demands. These identified themes seem to corroborate with the findings of other researcher who have studied the student experience. These findings should be taken into consideration as it could be very helpful in helping the nursing students to get adjusted, feeling less stressful and less overworked while undergoing the nursing program.

Author: Aini Ahmad, SRN, SCM, PHN, EN, BSc. BNSc. MEd. (Registered Counselor)

Nursing Sciences Unit, Department of Allied Health Science, Faculty of Medicine

University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur

Email: |


Recent reports underscore that a serious shortage of manpower in medical and nursing is now a reality. Various factors have been cited as leading to the present situation, including the increasing number of Malaysian RN leaving the country to work in the country such as Saudi Arabia, UK, Australia and US. The figure of about 300 to 400 nurses leaving each year either to work overseas or resigned from the public sector to join private sector. These have contributed the nursing colleges to increase the total number of student intake per session. For example the colleges of nursing under the Ministry of Health of Malaysia recruit about 100 – 150 young, post secondary girls to join nursing twice a year and most of these young girls were not fully aware what they are going into.

Many studies done abroad and few studies done locally has quoted that nursing has become a very stressful job, with staffing issues contributing to the decision by some to leave the profession prematurely. Even while still undergoing the training for three years, many students faced with specific stressors. Aini (1996) in her study identified the major sources of stress faced by students were on issues related to academic, clinical and issues of interpersonal.

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Managing overweight and obesity: Challenging role of healthcare providers

measuring obesityThe global burden of overweight and obesity is estimated at more than 1.1 billion (James, Chunming & Inoue, 2002). A World Health Organisation [WHO] (1997) report showed that the increasing prevalence of obesity is associated with impaired psychosocial health, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnoea, breast and uterine cancer. Another study conducted by Low et al. (2006) demonstrates that obesity is a stronger predictor of mortality and morbidity, and it is one of the most important risk factors contributing to the overall disease worldwide

Authors: Zahari, C.D , Acting Dean, Faculty of Allied Health Professions, AIMST University, Semeling, Kedah, Malaysia
Yu, C.W. , School of Nursing, Faculty of Allied Health Professions, AIMST University, Semeling, Kedah, Malaysia


This paper will look at this global scenario and its possible effects on population health. It is appropriate that this paper tries to explore and review the conceptual and clinical assessment issues related to obesity, and critically examine the role of primary healthcare providers, particularly at community levels, and its implications on their clinical practice. The paper will address the benefits of employing the transtheoretical model [TM] (Seals, 2007) by healthcare providers in the management of overweight and obesity in adults.

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On the road to better healthcare

nurse talking to patient


Nancy Brisa A. Fuentes, RN, MA (Nursing)
Delegate and Presenter, 2nd BIMP International Nursing Conference 2009

Conference Chair – 1st International Nursing Conference 2008

Independent Consultant in Child Health and Professor of Nursing
Davao City, Philippines

Excerpt :
No child goes back into the mother’s womb because it encounters difficulties. In like manner, the advocates of improved nursing practices in the region will press on, knowing fully well that this is the only way to achieve maturity. The road to achieving this goal may be long, hard and occasionally frustrating. What everybody should bear in mind, though, is that this path has to be travelled. But as we have decided to dream and enlarge our vision, the travel can be joyful and fulfilling! If it has not occurred to us yet, it should be clear by now. Finally, we are on the road!

Download Full Article Here (pdf. 29.5Kb)

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